Though the UN General Assembly will plod through its near-static 168 item agenda over the next few months, the real focus of the crucial session comes down to a few key issues; the ongoing and politically evolving Arab Spring, the Global Economic gloom, and the humanitarian challenge of natural disasters from Haiti to the Horn of Africa.
First, the “Arab Spring.” A series of unexpected popular rebellions have rocked the Middle East and North Africa since January. Formerly “stable” autocracies such as Tunisia and Egypt were jolted by protests which toppled the governments. Later similar uprisings spread to Yemen, Libya and Syria.
In early January, few would have predicted the revolts in Egypt or Syria or could have imagined that NATO’s military might would be fighting alongside Libyan rebels to oust Col. Moammar Gadhafi.
While the roots and results of each of the revolutions are different, the political bottom line remains the same, a tectonic shift in power and the players in key countries. The overthrow of the pro-American President Hosni Mubarak in Egypt, presents a major loss for regional stability. The mob trashing of the Israeli Embassy in Cairo and a Muslim Brotherhood regime waiting in the wings doesn’t bode well for Egypt’s future.
Amid the political surprises in the Arab would comes the peripatetic Palestinian issue before the Assembly. Palestinian authorities are pushing for a formal move to United Nations membership, thus upgrading their longstanding Permanent Observer status. But getting a membership resolution through the 193 member General Assembly is not the challenge, passing the fifteen member Security Council remains the hurdle.
While Washington is certain to veto UN membership of a Palestinian state at this point, Israel in the meantime warns that such a unilateral move to formal Palestinian statehood in an area encompassing the pre-1967 borders, would breach previous agreements to negotiate a two-state solution. Sadly Turkey, has emerged as a vocal proponent of a Palestinian state, and throwing its longtime friendship with Israel to the wind.
Global Economic turmoil naturally threatens the UN in profoundly different ways. As the world economy remains mired in recession, and as major economic engines of growth such as the United States, Japan and the European Union face not only economic slowdown but more dangerously the albatross of massive debt, the prospects for developing countries sours. The loss of investment, markets and commerce, has been held hostage to the recession. Developing countries are bound by this grim reality.
Moreover the terrible earthquake and tsunami which hit Japan earlier this year has not only significantly cut an already tepid Japanese growth rate, but has hampered one of the key countries providing economic and humanitarian assistance to many developing countries. The Japanese along with the USA, Canada and some European Union states remain among the most generous global givers in time of crisis. Natural Disasters are the third issue affecting the new Assembly.
Assembly President al-Nasser stressed “We must invest in preparedness, to reduce risk and vulnerability to natural hazards.” He added poignantly, that the ongoing famine in Somalia saw people “facing starvation and humanitarian disaster on an unimaginable scale.”
According to UNICEF officials, the drought in the Horn of Africa remains a “crisis of magnitude not seen in the last decade” with thirteen million affected across the region. Humanitarian challenges go well beyond Africa to Haiti, Pakistan, and North Korea.
Interestingly Assembly President al-Nasser, coming from the business-friendly Arab Gulf state of Qatar, confronted a lingering problem in the UN itself; “There is no shame in admitting that after six decades, our Organization needs reform,” addressing key issues such as Security Council expansion and alluding to inefficiencies in the UN management system, and the widening challenges to peacekeeping mandates.
The UN system, at 66 years of age, seems well beyond a political mid-life crisis.
John J. Metzler is a U.N. correspondent covering diplomatic and defense
issues. He writes weekly for WorldTribune.com.